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Sunday, July 23, 2017

Unit Weight of Chinese I Beam

Dear Readers,
 
For Chinese Steel section Beams are mentioned as “I “or “H " followed by number. To find out the size of section is, shown number multiple by 10 is the size of member.

For Example I20 means I section 200 mm depth. Simultaneously the beam sizes are same but width or flange size is different then suffix a, b, c is shown.

For example I20a & I20b, both are 200 beam. However width of flange is 100 and 102 mm respectively, also thickness of web also changes. While designating the beam Depth and width only mentioned. I20a means Beam 200 X 100 and I20b means Beam 200 X 102. Unit Weight of I Beam section is below.

Generally Chinese Steel Grades are Q195, Q215, Q235, Q255 and Q275 is used for Structural works. steel grades by the yield point of the letter on behalf of (Q) and yield point value is mentioned and sub grade A, B, C & D are used for further classification. For Example Q235A means, it is a carbon steel and having maximum yield strength of 235 Mpa.
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Sunday, July 2, 2017

Concreting Precautions

Dear Readers,

No construction activities will be taken without concreting, Let us see the precaution works before concreting. Proper concreting of RCC Columns, pedestals and footings is needed to ensure desired strength and durability of these structural members. Improper method of concreting may lead to corrosion of steel reinforcement due to pores, cracks in concrete and concrete may not achieve its target strength on setting. This may also lead to failure of columns, pedestals or footings on during occupancy of the structure.

Things to keep in mind before starting concrete works at site are:

1. Formwork inspection for strength, leakage and surface finish.

2. Reinforcement inspection as per drawing, lap length, correct lapping guidelines as per code,

3. Inspection for concrete cover to reinforcement

4. Inspection for alignment of structural member as per drawing

5. Availability of sufficient construction material at site

6. Availability of concrete vibrators,

7. Proper safety PPEs and safety measures,

8. Proper ratio of concrete mix should be confirmed,

9. Availability of slump testing equipment,

10. Availability of cube casting equipment.

After the above inspection is done and found satisfactory, concreting work should start. 

Concreting of RCC columns, pedestals and footings should start from the center of vertical bars and go towards the ends. After placement of sufficient quantity, concrete should be vibrated at regular intervals so that the concrete spreads evenly on all sides. Over vibration of concrete should be avoided. Over vibration of concrete leads to segregation of coarse aggregates which settles at the bottom making the mix weak.

Proper keys should be provided in the center of column reinforcement and walls. if the concreting has to be stopped for the day, all upper surfaces of column and walls should be made rough by wire brush after initial setting of concrete for joints with later pour of concrete.
 
This is required to provide a proper grip between concrete of stem part with footing and walls and foundations. Cement and sand slurry of 1:1 mix should be applied on the footing and foundations before column stem and wall concreting is started, to avoid separation of stem/ wall where a cold joint may be formed.

After the concreting of footing is complete, immediately in a day or two starters for column and wall should be casted with proper alignment and again the upper surface of starter should be made rough. This can be easily achieved simply by spreading and light pressing coarse aggregates particles when concrete is still green in such a way that part of coarse aggregate is outside and part goes inside.

This method of making top surface rough is to be adopted along with providing key at all places in columns, pedestals, vertical walls which are always concreted after concreting of footing and rafts concreting is over (approximately two or three days letter). These measures provide a proper grip between the surfaces. In addition to above dowels in between outer main bars of wall and column are inserted when concrete is wet to provide further grip between old and new concrete surfaces.

 These dowels are 600 to 800 mm cut pieces of reinforcement bars, which are inserted in green/wet concrete such a way that half length is projecting and half length is inside concrete.
 
Wish you all the best for excellent concreting. Have a Nice Day.

Sunday, June 4, 2017

Turnbuckle

Dear Readers,

Turnbuckle is a device that usually consists of a link with screw threads at both ends, which is turned to bring the ends closer together. It is also known as stretching screw or bottle screw, it is used in hoisting or rigging operations. This should be of weld less construction and fabricated from alloy steel.
 
A turnbuckle is a 3-piece metal coupling device, usually comprised of internal screw threads along-with a long sleeve at both ends. It normally consists of two threaded eye bolts, one screwed into each end of a small metal frame, one with a left-hand thread and the other with a right-hand thread. The tension can be adjusted by rotating the frame / central nut. So that they can be pulled together or pushed farther.
 
The buckle is rotated clockwise, the screws eject out of the body, thereby releasing tension. And when it is turned in anti-clockwise direction, the screws on the other hand are driven towards the center, thereby increasing tension. The threaded regions of the turnbuckle either feature a hook or screw-eye at the non-threaded end.
 
It is used to fasten wires, cables, ropes, or shafts, which are either attached to an anchor point or to other cables, including ropes and shafts. When they are supplied with hook end fittings, ensure that the hooks are fitted with safety catches.
 
If the turnbuckle is to be used in an application where vibration is present, it is extremely important to lock the frame to the end fittings to prevent it from turning and loosening. Lock nuts or jam nuts should not be used and add greatly to the load in the screw thread. Use wire instead.
 
Turnbuckles should be inspected frequently for cracks in the end fittings, deformed or bent rods and bodies, cracks and bends around the internally threaded portion and signs of thread damage.
 
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