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Sunday, June 4, 2017

Turnbuckle

Dear Readers,

Turnbuckle is a device that usually consists of a link with screw threads at both ends, which is turned to bring the ends closer together. It is also known as stretching screw or bottle screw, it is used in hoisting or rigging operations. This should be of weld less construction and fabricated from alloy steel.
 
A turnbuckle is a 3-piece metal coupling device, usually comprised of internal screw threads along-with a long sleeve at both ends. It normally consists of two threaded eye bolts, one screwed into each end of a small metal frame, one with a left-hand thread and the other with a right-hand thread. The tension can be adjusted by rotating the frame / central nut. So that they can be pulled together or pushed farther.
 
The buckle is rotated clockwise, the screws eject out of the body, thereby releasing tension. And when it is turned in anti-clockwise direction, the screws on the other hand are driven towards the center, thereby increasing tension. The threaded regions of the turnbuckle either feature a hook or screw-eye at the non-threaded end.
 
It is used to fasten wires, cables, ropes, or shafts, which are either attached to an anchor point or to other cables, including ropes and shafts. When they are supplied with hook end fittings, ensure that the hooks are fitted with safety catches.
 
If the turnbuckle is to be used in an application where vibration is present, it is extremely important to lock the frame to the end fittings to prevent it from turning and loosening. Lock nuts or jam nuts should not be used and add greatly to the load in the screw thread. Use wire instead.
 
Turnbuckles should be inspected frequently for cracks in the end fittings, deformed or bent rods and bodies, cracks and bends around the internally threaded portion and signs of thread damage.
 

Monday, May 1, 2017

BOCW Cess

Dear Readers,
 
Wish You a Happy May Day-2017

Following three industries where normally unskilled manpower are being deployed
·         Construction Industries –Applicable act is BOCW Act, 1996
·         Manufacturing Industries – Applicable act is Factories Act
·         Mining Industries – Applicable act is Mines Act
Now, let us discuss about BOCW act. It is short form of Building and Other Construction Workers' Welfare Cess Act, 1996

Normally in construction Industries, we used to follow the Contract Labour Act, 1971, and we take Labour License before commencement of Construction Job. In that Act, normally the details are given about the Contract Workforce, Obtaining Labour License Procedure, Welfare Measures, and all about the contract Workmen. The Government felt that the act is not having the uniqueness.
 
Hence in 1996, Indian government introduced the Building & Other Construction Workers Act, (in Short, BOCW Act), BOCW Rules and BOCW Welfare Cess Act, In BOCW Act & Rules it has given the direction about the Welfare measures to Workmen, Safety Precautions and many Technical Aspects about the Tools, Tackles, Instruments, Machineries, Lifting Appliances, its maintenance, inspection, etc. Medical Facilities required to be given to the injured workmen, Periodical Medical Checkup for drivers, operators, food handlers, etc., Pre-employment Medical Checkup for every workmen.
In this Act, for implementation purpose the Government needs fund. So they implemented the BOCW Welfare Act, which made the provision to collect 1% minimum and Maximum of 2% of the Cost of Construction / Works carried out during the Financial Year to be paid as BOCWW Cess to the BOCWW Cess Board.
Some of the Key Points are below.
·         Cess came into force on 26th March, 1998

·         This act is applicable immediately on commencement of Job

·         The Principal Employer and the contractors, both are liable for this Cess

·         The responsibility of Principal Employer to make the payment of Cess.

·         The BOCW Cess is payable to the Government (BOCW Welfare Commissioner of State)

·         Cess rate not exceeding two percentage, but not less than one percentage of the cost of construction incurred by an employer.

·         Cess shall not include the Cost of land and any compensation paid or payable to a worker or his kin under the Workmen's Compensation Act. 1923.

·         BOCW act does not include any building or other construction work to which the provisions of the Factories Act, 1948 (63 of 1948), or the Mines Act, 1952 (35 of 1952), apply.

·         Cess is not refundable in any case. However, the amount of compensation paid to the workers during that year, can be deducted from the Cess payable.

·         Cess shall be paid by an employer,

o   If the project duration is less than a year, within thirty days of completion of the construction project or within thirty days of the date on which assessment of Cess payable is finalised, whichever is earlier, to the Cess collector.

o   If the duration of the project or construction work exceeds one year, Cess shall be paid within thirty days of completion of one year from the date of commencement of work and every year thereafter at the notified rates on the cost of construction incurred during the relevant period.

·         Once Factories Act is implemented there the BOCW act will get ceased.

·         Once the Factory fencing is made excluding the expansion project then Factories Act is not applicable and only BOCW will be applicable to that expansion project.

·         If Construction area falls within the factory premises then BOCW Act cannot be applicable and only Factories Act will be applicable.

·         For Registration under BOCW Act is exempted for those who got covered by Factories Act and Mines Act and the construction work carried out for self and the cost is within 10 Lakhs.

·         Generally ESI Coverage is not applicable for Construction Industries and not for BOCW Act. But if your construction Activities are being done in the premises of Factories or your principal employer is covered under ESI, then obviously you also required to make payment of ESI as 1.75% Employee Share and 4.75% Employer Share.
The above views are my personal views from the study which I have made on this subject. There is a need to take up the ambiguities in this entire enactment

Sunday, April 2, 2017

Sand Blasting

 

Dear Readers,
 
Sand blasting is one of the surface cleaning process for structural steel. Sandblasting is a general term used to describe the act of propelling very fine bits of material at high-velocity to clean a surface. Sand used to be the most commonly used material.


As per ISO and Swedish standard, Surface preparation by blast cleaning is designated by the letters "Sa". Swedish standards has been accepted worldwide. As per standards Sand blasting is classified under four category namely Sa1, Sa2, Sa 2 ½, & Sa3.


Brief descriptions are as follows. 
Sa1 = Light Blast Cleaning
Sa2 = Through Blast Cleaning
Sa 2 ½ = Very through blast cleaning
Sa3 = Blast cleaning to visually clean Steel

“Sa” means Swedish air blast similarly “St” means Swedish tool cleaning. Detailed description of each grade is as follows.

Blasting Grade Sa 1: It is a light blast cleaning. Loose mill scale, rust and foreign matter must be removed. When viewed without magnification, the surface shall be free from visible oil, grease and dirt, and from poorly adhering mill scale, rust, paint coatings and foreign matter.

Blasting Grade Sa 2: It is a through blast cleaning. Almost all mill scale, rust and foreign matter must be removed.  When viewed without magnification, the surface shall be free from visible oil, grease and dirt, and from poorly adhering mill scale, rust, paint coatings and foreign matter. Any residual contamination shall be firmly adhering.

Blasting Grade Sa 2 ½: It is a very through blast cleaning. This grade is very often used in construction industry. Mill scale, rust and foreign matter must be removed to the extent that the only traces remaining are slight stains in the form of spots or stripes.

Blasting Grade Sa3: Blast cleaning to pure metal. Mill scale, rust and foreign matter must be removed completely and it shall have a uniform metallic colour.
Notes.
1). Surface cleaning should be mention along with rust grade. For example B Sa2, here first letter "B" represents rust grade.

2). Prior to blast –cleaning, any heavy layers of rust shall be removed by chipping. Visible oil, grease and dirt shall also be removed.

3). Finally the surface is cleaned with a vacuum cleaner, clean dry compressed air, or a clean dry brush before painting.

For More Details about surface preparation of structural steel click Here
For More Details about grades of rust click Here
 
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